space law

Biosphere 2: The Failure Of a Unique Experiment

Biosphere 2 is an experimental site that could be described as a giant greenhouse, created on a hermetic floor by concrete and stainless steel plates. Let us have a look.

Policy Considerations for Satellite Communications

The demand for space resources can only increase in a set up where space-based technologies and services will be integral to explore, govern, teach, learn, conduct business and defend national territories.

The Artemis Program Or The Return of Man On the Moon

Named after Artemis, the Greek goddess of the Moon and twin sister of Apollo, the program will lead humanity back to the Moon and prepare it for the exploration of Mars. Let us have a look.

Understanding the UAE Space Vision through its Program and Law

Created in 2014, the United Arab Emirates Space Agency (UAESA) is the space agency of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a country composed of seven emirates. Let us have a look.

Galileo Constellation: The Independence of Europe

The system has been active since December 15, 2016 when the initial services became operational with the positioning of the first fifteen satellites. Subsequently, the number of satellites was gradually enlarged.

Hayabusa 2: The Success Of A Unique Mission

Hayabusa 2 is a space probe from JAXA, the Japanese space agency. Launched on December 3, 2014, it achieved the feat of bringing back to Earth samples of an asteroid.

The Chang’e 5 Mission: Aims And Consequences

Named after the Chinese Moon goddess, Chang’e is a lunar sample return space probe. Chang’e 5 is part of the Chinese lunar exploration program, and was set up by the Chinese space agency (CNSA). Let us have a look.

Understanding Transpace Carriers Inc. v. United States (1990)

Transpace Carriers, Inc. v. United States of 1990 is one of the most important space law cases regarding pre-contractual breach in contract law. Let us have a look.

Understanding the Mars Society

The Mars Society is a volunteer-driven non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the human exploration and settlement of the planet Mars. The Mars Society was founded by Robert Zubrin on August 13, 1998.

Understanding Hughes Communications Galaxy Inc. v. United States (2001)

Hughes Communications Galaxy Inc. v. United States case of 2001 is one of the most important decisions of contract law within space activities law. Let us have a look.

The French Act Relating to Space Activities

In France, a distinction is made between “space uses”, which are services provided from space such as telecommunications, location or satellite observation, and “space operations” which concern the methods and devices used to go into space, stay there and then come back to Earth. The 2008 French act only deals with the legal framework of space operations.

The United Kingdom And Its Space Program

The United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) is the agency of the Government of the United Kingdom dedicated to the development of the civil space program. The agency was established on April 1, 2010 as a replacement of the British National Space Centre.

The Canadian Space Agency and its Space Program

The Canadian Space Agency is the space agency of Canada. It was established on March 1, 1989 by the Canadian Space Agency Act, which was proclaimed in December 1990. Let us have a look.

Everything About The Spacelab Program

Developed by Europe but operated by the United States of America, Spacelab was the first program in U.S. space history which entrusted to a foreign entity the construction of a station intended to receive a crew in space.

The Use of Nuclear Powered Engines in Outer Space

On August 20, 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump issued a memorandum about research on a potential launch of spacecraft containing nuclear powered engines. Let us have a look.

The Voyager Program: History and Mission

The Voyager program is a real success. The program has made it possible to collect an enormous amount of data and images on our Solar system, which have allowed to gain a more precise knowledge of deep space.

The Molniya Orbit and Satellites

The name of this orbit comes from the Molniya satellites program which was a series of civilian and military communications satellites developed by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Indeed these satellites have used this particular orbit since the mid 1960s, therefore giving its name to it.

The Mir Space Station: History and Legacy

Mir was a space station that was operated in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) from 1986 to 2001 by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Predecessor of the International Space Station, the Mir station was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit.

The Canadian Space Program

Canada has become a pioneer in satellite communications and Earth observation in response to the needs of a population scattered over thousands of kilometers, as well as the need to monitor the longest coastline in the world and second-largest territory.

NASA And The Woodpecker

Mission STS-70 scheduled for launch on June 8, 1995 had to be postponed to July 13, 1995 after mission STS-71. The reason? A woodpecker.