Declaration on International Cooperation and the Needs of Developing Countries

The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, adopted in 1996 (General Assembly Resolution 51/122), recognises the needs of developing countries.

The legal status of biosatellites and their payloads

Biosatellites are a special type of satellites taking living organisms (plants, animals, organisms…) into outer space for the study of their behaviour. Are those biosatellites spacecraft or satellites? Are they space objects? Is the biological matter considered a payload of the space object and therefore a space object itself? Are those living beings envoys of mankind?

GhanaSat-1, the first Ghanaian satellite

In 2017, Ghana sent its first satellite, the 1-kilogram GhanaSat-1, which can take images, collect atmospheric data, measure space radiation, and transmit uploaded audio, into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Ghana entered the closed club of African states in orbit.

Edward Makuka Nkoloso, the Afronauts and the Zambian space program

In 1964, at the height of the Cold War, an African schoolteacher named Edward Makuka Nkoloso launched the Zambian space program with a dozen aspiring teenage astronauts or “afronauts”. Nkoloso said he had been inspired by his first airplane flight. When the pilot refused to stop the plane so that he could get out and walk on the clouds, Nkoloso made up his mind to enter the Space Race.

Troposphere, Jean-Patrice Keka and the Congolese space program

Troposphere rockets are developed by Jean-Patrice Keka and his private company Développement Tous Azimuts (DTA). Let’s discover the Congolese space program.