Canada

The Canadian Space Agency and its Space Program

The Canadian Space Agency is the space agency of Canada. It was established on March 1, 1989 by the Canadian Space Agency Act, which was proclaimed in December 1990. Let us have a look.

The Canadian Space Program

Canada has become a pioneer in satellite communications and Earth observation in response to the needs of a population scattered over thousands of kilometers, as well as the need to monitor the longest coastline in the world and second-largest territory.

Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space

A positive step towards protecting the human environment was taken on December 14, 1992, with the adoption by the U.N. General Assembly of the Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space. These eleven Principles, with the Resolution adopting them, culminate efforts going back to 1972.

The Manual on International Law Applicable to Military Uses of Outer Space

Launched in May 2016, the Manual on International Law Applicable to Military Uses of Outer Space (MILAMOS) Project aims to develop a widely-accepted manual clarifying the fundamental rules applicable to the military use of outer space in peacetime.

Jurisdiction over a multi-component space object

In our research on Space Law and on the notion of Space object, let’s have a look at how jurisdiction over a multi-component space object is managed. In this case, by the terms “multi-component space object”, we will look at a space object composed of many space objects, each under the jurisdiction and control of a different state. The best example is the International Space Station (ISS).

The 1999 Montreal Convention

The 1999 Montreal Convention (MC99) establishes airline liability in the case of death or injury to passengers, as well as in cases of delay, damage or loss of baggage and cargo. It unifies all of the different international treaty regimes covering airline liability that had developed haphazardly since 1929. MC99 is designed to be a single, universal treaty to govern airline liability around the world.

The 1972 Liability Convention

Elaborating on Article VII of the Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention provides that a launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space objects on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft, and liable for damage due to its faults in outer space. The Convention also provides for procedures for the settlement of claims for damages.

Alouette 1, the first Canadian satellite

Alouette 1 (which means “skylark” in French), which takes its name from a French-Canadian folk song, was the first Canadian artificial satellite. Alouette 1 made Canada the third nation, after the USSR and the United States of America, to design and construct its own satellite.

Is the International Space Station a launching State?

Satellites launched from Earth require dedicated launch vehicles to propel them into the proper orbit. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) found a way to cut the costs of this activity by designing a small satellite launcher, installed recently on the International Space Station (ISS). Is ISS therefore a launching State?