History of the French Hermes spaceplane

The French Hermes spaceplane evolved into a space shuttle capable of carrying several people as well as a significant cargo. When the project was designed, the goal was to use the Ariane launch vehicle to launch the Hermes spaceplane, thus ensuring a full European program.

Analysis of the 2008 French space law

The adoption of the 2008 French space law or “LOI du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales” on June 3, 2008, which addressed several issues intimately linked to the privatisation of space activities, marked the outcome of several years of discussions, and finally provided France with a legal framework for activities in outer space.

French ONERA and outer space

The Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) is the French national aerospace research centre. It is a public establishment, with industrial and commercial operations, and carries out application-oriented research to support enhanced innovation and competitiveness in the aerospace and defense sectors.

Kourou, the European spaceport

Favourable climate, near the equator, opening onto the ocean… Beyond these natural assets, if the CSG (Centre Spatial Guyanais), the Guiana Space Center, Europe’s spaceport, retains its place in the international chessboard, it is because it knows how to continually adapt to the expectations of satellite customers, and technological developments in the field of launchers and ground means.

France in space: independence and cooperation

At the head of the third world space budget, France equipped itself in September with a military space command. Apart from manned flight, the hexagon is present in all areas: commercial launches, science, observation, telecommunications and defense.

An interview with Jean-François Clervoy

This interview of Jean-François Clervoy was conducted by Louis de Gouyon Matignon for Space Legal Issues on Thursday, April 25, 2019, in the CNES office of Jean-François Clervoy in Paris, France. We talked about Space Law, how astronauts are selected and how much do they earn, the Overview Effect and anecdotes.

Space Agencies and Space Law

India has its own space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which operates under the Indian Government. In Russia, much is done through Roscosmos. In a variety of instances, however, governments and national agencies have come together co-operatively to engage in space activities with consequent effects on space law. Of these one obvious example is the European Space Agency (ESA).

KITSAT-1, the first South Korean satellite

Launched as a piggyback payload on an Ariane 4 (as part of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission) in August 1992 from Kourou in French Guyana, KITSAT-1, the first South Korean satellite, was developed by SaTRec after three years of participation in an educational program at the University of Surrey (England) in satellite development and training of researchers.

The history of reusable launch systems

With the invention of rocket propulsion in the first half of the twentieth century, space travel became a technical possibility. The subject of reusable launch systems presents a certain industrial sensitivity. In a context of economic competition between space launchers, especially between Ariane (Europe) and SpaceX (USA), it is interesting to propose a historical synthesis of reusable launch systems projects developed in the past decades.

Arabsat-1A, the first Saudi Arabian satellite

Arabsat-1A, the first Saudi Arabian satellite, was a Saudi Arabian communications satellite operated by Arabsat and launched by Ariane 3 on February 8, 1985. Founded in 1976 by the twenty-one member-states of the Arab League, Arabsat has been serving the growing needs of the Arab world for over forty years, operating from its headquarter in Riyadh-KSA and two Satellite control stations in Riyadh and Tunis.

A conference by Jean-Yves Le Gall

Space law will develop in the upcoming years, there will be more and more space legal issues. France set an example with the LOI n° 2008-518 du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales. Americans want to “set the rules” on the Moon. It is a subject in full development.

An interview with Jacques Arnould

An interview with the French priest Jacques Arnould working for the CNES on ethical questions linked to outer space: Mars, the Moon, the exploitation of celestial bodies, science and faith, forestry, and the future of space law.

A garage for satellites in Low Earth Orbit?

A “space garage” or garage for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), at an altitude of roughly two thousand kilometres or less, could, while orbiting the Earth at a speed of about twenty-eight thousand kilometres per hour, operate different kinds of services on satellites as well as recycle space debris.

An interview with Michel Viso

An interview with French veterinarian Michel Viso from the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) in Paris about exobiology, Enceladus, Europa, Titan, French spationauts, and extraterritorial life. Could we terraform Mars? Could we live on the Moon? How to define life? What is the future of space law?

An interview with Jean-Pierre Sanfourche

An interview with Jean-Pierre Sanfourche of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF) about scientific ballooning, the future of aeronautics, the Hermes spaceplane, the Moon village…

When France became the third space power

On November 26, 1965, France placed the A1 satellite, also known as Astérix, into low Earth orbit. Less than ten years after humanity entered the Space Age, France surprised everyone by becoming the third country to place an object into Earth’s orbit.

The birth of the French space program

The French space program started with the creation of the National Center for Space Studies or Centre national d’études spatiales (CNES), the most important national space agency in the European Union.