France

History of the French Hermes spaceplane

The French Hermes spaceplane evolved into a space shuttle capable of carrying several people as well as a significant cargo. When the project was designed, the goal was to use the Ariane launch vehicle to launch the Hermes spaceplane, thus ensuring a full European program.

Intellectual Property aboard the International Space Station

While it is true that space technology has long been one of the most advanced technical fields and that space activities are, in fact, intellectual creations, it is only in recent years that these activities have raised questions of intellectual property. Among other reasons, space activities, public as they were, are becoming more and more private and commercial.

Satellite operating contract

Space contracts are not completely new contracts: they borrow pre-existing molds. However, contractual practice is innovating in order to respond to new needs generated by new techniques: innovation is reflected here in the very fine adaptation to the subject of the contract. Let’s have a look at the satellite operating contract.

All about the Mexican Space Agency

The direct antecedent of the Agencia Espacial Mexicana or Mexican Space Agency (AME) is the Comisión Nacional del Espacio Exterior (CONEE), an office created in 1962 and attached to the Secretariat of Communications and Transport, which carried out experiments in rocket, telecommunications and atmospheric studies from 1962 to 1976.

Satellite launch contract

How does the satellite launch contract works? How is it created? In this area, we can really speak of the launch market. The last few years have in fact seen the European company Arianespace, long in a situation of quasi-monopoly in matters of commercial launches, widely challenged by companies not only American and Russian, but also Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Brazilian.

Understanding the Wassenaar Arrangement

The main objective of the Wassenaar Arrangement is to coordinate export policies in terms of armaments but also dual-use goods and technologies. It succeeds the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls signed in 1949 (COCOM).

Satellite construction contract

Space contracts are not completely new contracts: they borrow pre-existing molds. However, contractual practice is innovating in order to respond to new needs generated by new techniques: innovation is reflected here in the very fine adaptation to the subject of the contract.

The history of space elevators

The promoters of space elevators generally do not fail to mention the first published concrete attempt, that of the Tower of Babel. Literally “The Gate of the Gods”, it was a ziggurat, a two-story temple-tower, supposed to allow the Babylonians to reach a sacred domain where they would find their supreme god, who lived in the highest heavens.

What laws apply in international contracts?

Private relations increasingly include an element of foreignness due to the internationalization of economic exchanges and the multiplication of population displacements. In doing so, international contracts are common in all economic activities.

2020: the decade of return to the Moon

The return of humans to the Moon is planned for 2024 as part of the Artemis program: fifty-five years after Apollo, the crew should be made up of a man and a woman with the objective of installing a perennial base on our natural satellite. A project in which Europe and France will be associated.

ESA ministerial meeting results in record budget

On November 27 and 28, 2019, the ESA (European Space Agency) council meeting at ministerial level (Space19+) took place in Seville, Spain. Now that one week has past, let us take a view back at the meeting, its results and initial reactions expressed within Europe.

A history of Vomit Comets

Parabolic flight, as a way of simulating weightlessness, was first proposed by the German aerospace engineer Fritz Haber and the German physicist Heinz Haber in 1950. Both had been brought to the U.S. after World War II as part of “Operation Paperclip”.

Who was Alexandre Ananoff?

Alexandre Ananoff was, well before the first passengers of spaceships, an astronaut: one of those who are interested in the science of rockets and space travel, astronautics. From the end of the 1920s to the launch of Sputnik 1 (1957), he has played a major role.

Light pollution: towards a right to darkness?

For ten years, the subject of light pollution has been more and more discussed. Researchers argue for a right to darkness, both to rediscover the starry sky and to protect ecosystems and human beings, who see lighting as a security symbol.

Analysis of the 2008 French space law

The adoption of the 2008 French space law or “LOI du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales” on June 3, 2008, which addressed several issues intimately linked to the privatisation of space activities, marked the outcome of several years of discussions, and finally provided France with a legal framework for activities in outer space.

Clément Ader and his pioneering work in aviation

Some consider the plane of Clément Ader, Éole, to have been the first true aeroplane, given that it left the ground under its own power and carried a person through the air for a short distance, and that the event of October 1890, was the first successful flight.

The future of dirigible balloons

Dirigible balloons are currently enjoying renewed interest, as evidenced by ongoing programs in France or abroad. This very old aeronautical solution presents an interesting alternative from an economic point of view, because of its sobriety in terms of fuel consumption. Another advantage is its hovering capacity.

French ONERA and outer space

The Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) is the French national aerospace research centre. It is a public establishment, with industrial and commercial operations, and carries out application-oriented research to support enhanced innovation and competitiveness in the aerospace and defense sectors.

Kourou, the European spaceport

Favourable climate, near the equator, opening onto the ocean… Beyond these natural assets, if the CSG (Centre Spatial Guyanais), the Guiana Space Center, Europe’s spaceport, retains its place in the international chessboard, it is because it knows how to continually adapt to the expectations of satellite customers, and technological developments in the field of launchers and ground means.

France in space: independence and cooperation

At the head of the third world space budget, France equipped itself in September with a military space command. Apart from manned flight, the hexagon is present in all areas: commercial launches, science, observation, telecommunications and defense.