France

Space Insurance & Space Law

Space insurance is governed, as all classes of insurance, by general insurance principles: mutualisation (the premium of the many pay for the claims of the few), fortuity (notion of random occurrence as opposed to prediction), indemnity (not to be richer after the loss than before), due intelligence (insurance should not alter the behaviour of the insured), and true and fair declaration of the risk.

An interview with Jean-François Clervoy

This interview of Jean-François Clervoy was conducted by Louis de Gouyon Matignon for Space Legal Issues on Thursday, April 25, 2019, in the CNES office of Jean-François Clervoy in Paris, France. We talked about Space Law, how astronauts are selected and how much do they earn, the Overview Effect and anecdotes.

The Lotus principle

The Lotus principle or Lotus approach, usually considered a foundation of Public International Law, says that sovereign states may act in any way they wish so long as they do not contravene an explicit prohibition. The Lotus case concerns a criminal trial. A collision occurred on the high seas between a French vessel and a Turkish vessel. Victims were Turkish nationals and the alleged offender was French. Could Turkey exercise its jurisdiction over this French national under International Law?

The French Space Army

French President Emmanuel Macron announced Saturday the creation next September of a command dedicated to space, a potential French Space Army, an area essential to military operations and become a field of confrontation between powers.

The League of Nations

The League of Nations was an international organisation, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. Founded on January 10, 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War, it was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

Pleumeur-Bodou and the French CNET

July 11, 1962. For the first time in the history of telecommunications, television images are broadcasted live from the United States of America to Europe, thanks to the Telstar satellite. Mondovision was born thanks to Pleumeur-Bodou and the French CNET.

Where to learn Space Law?

Teaching is important both in spreading knowledge of space law and for its development. Unsurprisingly, given the number of states and enterprises now active in space, a goodly number of universities and other academic institutions round the world now offer lectures and occasionally courses in space law.

KITSAT-1, the first South Korean satellite

Launched as a piggyback payload on an Ariane 4 (as part of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission) in August 1992 from Kourou in French Guyana, KITSAT-1, the first South Korean satellite, was developed by SaTRec after three years of participation in an educational program at the University of Surrey (England) in satellite development and training of researchers.

Viking, the first Swedish satellite

Viking, the first Swedish satellite, was launched on an Ariane 1 rocket as a piggyback payload together with the French satellite SPOT 1, on February 22, 1986. Operations ended on May 12, 1987. Viking was used to explore plasma processes in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere.

The first European satellites

The first satellites of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), a pair of satellites that formed the basis of ESRO’s scientific program, concentrated on solar and cosmic radiation and its interaction with Earth. ESRO-1A was launched on October 3, 1968 and re-entered on June 26, 1970; ESRO-1B was launched on October 1, 1969 and re-entered on November 23, 1969.

The history of reusable launch systems

With the invention of rocket propulsion in the first half of the twentieth century, space travel became a technical possibility. The subject of reusable launch systems presents a certain industrial sensitivity. In a context of economic competition between space launchers, especially between Ariane (Europe) and SpaceX (USA), it is interesting to propose a historical synthesis of reusable launch systems projects developed in the past decades.

The French anti-UFO Municipal Law of 1954

It was in 1954 that the anti-flying saucer decree was voted in Châteauneuf-du-Pape (City Council), a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region in south-eastern France. What it the first Space Law text in history?

Arabsat-1A, the first Saudi Arabian satellite

Arabsat-1A, the first Saudi Arabian satellite, was a Saudi Arabian communications satellite operated by Arabsat and launched by Ariane 3 on February 8, 1985. Founded in 1976 by the twenty-one member-states of the Arab League, Arabsat has been serving the growing needs of the Arab world for over forty years, operating from its headquarter in Riyadh-KSA and two Satellite control stations in Riyadh and Tunis.

The lawfulness of drones in France

The use of civilian drones in France is governed by two recent regulations that came into force on January 1, 2016. These regulations separate civilian drone use into three categories: hobby and competition flying, flying for experimental and testing purposes, and “particular activities”, which essentially means everything else, including commercial use of drones.

Audouin Dollfus, the French aeronaut

Canadian astrophysicist Hubert Reeves considers Audouin Dollfus to be one of the greatest French contemporary astronomers. In particular, he discovered Saturn’s satellite Janus, determined the composition of Mars’ soil, detected an atmospheric residue on Mercury, and selected the Apollo XI mission landing site, which allowed Neil Armstrong to set the first human foot on the Moon.

Drones: new uses, new regulations, new technologies

As everyone can see, the new applications of drones – or at least the ideas of use – are extremely numerous and varied. Drones are today used for agriculture, the medias, long-range surveillance, the transport of packages or passengers, swarming for military use, and so on.

An interview with Jacques Arnould

An interview with the French priest Jacques Arnould working for the CNES on ethical questions linked to outer space: Mars, the Moon, the exploitation of celestial bodies, science and faith, forestry, and the future of space law.

A garage for satellites in Low Earth Orbit?

A “space garage” or garage for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), at an altitude of roughly two thousand kilometres or less, could, while orbiting the Earth at a speed of about twenty-eight thousand kilometres per hour, operate different kinds of services on satellites as well as recycle space debris.

Ohsumi, the first Japanese satellite

Ohsumi or Ōsumi, named after an old province of Japan in the area that is today the eastern part of Kagoshima Prefecture, is the first Japanese artificial satellite. It was launched on February 11, 1970 by a Lambda 4S rocket from the Uchinoura Space Center.

An interview with Michel Viso

An interview with French veterinarian Michel Viso from the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) in Paris about exobiology, Enceladus, Europa, Titan, French spationauts, and extraterritorial life. Could we terraform Mars? Could we live on the Moon? How to define life? What is the future of space law?