India

France in space: independence and cooperation

At the head of the third world space budget, France equipped itself in September with a military space command. Apart from manned flight, the hexagon is present in all areas: commercial launches, science, observation, telecommunications and defense.

Space Agencies and Space Law

India has its own space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which operates under the Indian Government. In Russia, much is done through Roscosmos. In a variety of instances, however, governments and national agencies have come together co-operatively to engage in space activities with consequent effects on space law. Of these one obvious example is the European Space Agency (ESA).

Badr-1, the first Pakistani satellite

Badr-1, meaning Full Moon-1 in Urdu, is the first Pakistani satellite. The Badr-1 was Pakistan’s first indigenously developed and manufactured digital communications and experimental artificial satellite. The spacecraft was launched into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by China on July 16, 1990.

Space weapons, satellites and anti-satellite systems

The only way to prevent Article IV (1967 Outer Space Treaty) from constituting an empty provision is a collective commitment by states aimed at updating international and national laws on outer space and the discipline of space weapons.

Aryabhata, the first Indian satellite

Aryabhata, the first Indian artificial satellite, which was built by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was launched from Kapustin Yar on April 19, 1977. India’s first unmanned satellite, which was assembled at Peenya, near Bangalore, was named by Indira Gandhi after Aryabhata, the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

Industrial commitments on legal aspects of active debris removal

Among the several issues related to the space activities, the one concerning the space debris removal has now become one of the most urgent to address: the number of space objects orbiting around our planet is likely to increase and threaten the safety of the present and future space activities.

KalamSat, the lightest and smallest satellite

KalamSat, the lightest and smallest satellite, designed by an 18-year-old boy from Tamil Nadu in India, is a femtosatellite. KalamSat was launched by NASA along with several other experiments on Terrier Orion sounding rocket on June 22, 2017 from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia.

Interkosmos

Interkosmos (1967) was a Soviet space program designed to help the Soviet Union’s allies with manned and unmanned space missions. The program of international cooperation had primarily political objectives: establishing good relations with the countries of Eastern Europe.

The birth of the Indian space programme

With the live transmission of the 1964 Summer Olympics, Vikram Sarabhai, the father of India’s space programme, quickly recognized the benefits of space technologies for India.

Mission Shakti and Space Law

The Indian government announced on March 27, 2019, it successfully fired a ground-based anti-satellite weapon against a satellite in Low Earth Orbit, a test – Mission Shakti – that is likely to heighten concerns about outer space security and orbital debris.

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