International Space Station (ISS)

Women in outer space

The first one hundred percent female extravehicular activity (EVA) took place last Friday from the International Space Station (ISS). Presented as an event by NASA, this release reminds us that aerospace remains a very masculine world: only ten percent of astronauts are women.

NASA communicating to survive

NASA is now sixty years old, and more than ever, it is everywhere: on social networks, in the media… Impossible to escape. Its media omnipresence, its ability to communicate, are key elements of its strategy. And for a good reason: since its origins, it is an essential factor of its survival.

The legal framework for commercial uses of ISS

NASA, the initiator of the International Space Station (ISS), is currently reinforcing partnerships with the commercial sector as well as other ISS Partner States: this gives rise to a need to analyse the legal framework for commercial uses of ISS.

Jurisdiction over a multi-component space object

In our research on Space Law and on the notion of Space object, let’s have a look at how jurisdiction over a multi-component space object is managed. In this case, by the terms “multi-component space object”, we will look at a space object composed of many space objects, each under the jurisdiction and control of a different state. The best example is the International Space Station (ISS).

Jurisdiction and control by an intergovernmental organisation

For this new Space Law article on Space Legal Issues, let’s focus on the exercise of jurisdiction and control over a space object by an international intergovernmental organisation. Let’s study the case of the ISS module Columbus. Which entity would be internationally liable? Which entity has jurisdiction and control over the space object?

NASA opens ISS to tourists

NASA decided to sell fifty-eight million dollars tickets for the International Space Station, paving the way for more space tourism. The U.S. Space Agency announced to open the ISS to space tourists from 2020. A dozen passengers could stay there each year for a maximum of thirty days. The move reflects the Space Agency’s broader push to encourage commercial partnerships and activities at the ISS. What are the legal aspects?

Luca Parmitano & EVA 23

In July 2013, shortly after the EVA 23 began, Luca Parmitano’s helmet began filling with water, resulting in a termination of the spacewalk. As he made his way back to the airlock, the water covered his eyes and nose, blinding and nearly drowning him.

The Commercial Crew Development program

NASA’s Commercial Crew and Cargo Program is investing financial and technical resources to stimulate efforts within the private sector to develop and demonstrate safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. The Program manages Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) partnership agreements with U.S. industry totalling eight hundred million American dollars for commercial cargo transportation demonstrations.

The Commercial Resupply Services contracts

The U.S. Space Agency is looking to deepen its ties with commercial partners; the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) are a series of contracts awarded by NASA from 2008 to 2016 for delivery of cargo and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on commercially operated spacecraft. Continuing its “commercial push”, NASA has issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the next round of contracts under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract.

The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program

The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) was a NASA program, announced on January 18, 2006, to coordinate the delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) by private companies. NASA challenged the U.S. industry to establish capabilities and services that could open New Space markets and support the crew and cargo transportation needs of the International Space Station (ISS).

A conference by Jean-Yves Le Gall

Space law will develop in the upcoming years, there will be more and more space legal issues. France set an example with the LOI n° 2008-518 du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales. Americans want to “set the rules” on the Moon. It is a subject in full development.

The overview effect

The overview effect is a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from outer space. Many people who have experienced outer space have lived the overview effect, “truly transformative experiences including senses of wonder and awe, unity with nature, transcendence, and universal brotherhood”.

Intasat, the first Spanish satellite

Intasat, the first Spanish artificial satellite launched in a Sun-synchronous orbit culminating at about one thousand and five hundred kilometres to study the ionosphere, was a milestone. It was, as one of the people involved said, “making a satellite that would teach us how to make satellites”.

Is the International Space Station a launching State?

Satellites launched from Earth require dedicated launch vehicles to propel them into the proper orbit. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) found a way to cut the costs of this activity by designing a small satellite launcher, installed recently on the International Space Station (ISS). Is ISS therefore a launching State?

GhanaSat-1, the first Ghanaian satellite

In 2017, Ghana sent its first satellite, the 1-kilogram GhanaSat-1, which can take images, collect atmospheric data, measure space radiation, and transmit uploaded audio, into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Ghana entered the closed club of African states in orbit.

Elon Musk and the birth of SpaceX

The objective of Elon Musk seems to be to garner a maximum of public and private orders, including from the actors and operators of “New Space”, and to lower the prices of space transportation in such a way that planetary colonization would be greatly facilitated, the goal being to establish an autonomous base on Mars.

SpaceX launches historic Crew Dragon spacecraft

Since 2011, the exclusive carrier to the ISS is the Russian Space Agency, and U.S. astronauts have to take off from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. But this situation is, thanks to SpaceX, about to change. The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, loaded with the Crew Dragon spacecraft, took off this morning from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Beresheet on the way to the Moon

Beresheet, an Israeli probe carried by a Falcon 9 rocket of the private company SpaceX, left Earth Thursday night at 20:45 local time towards the Moon. Israel will be the fourth country to join the Moon after the United States of America, Russia and China.

Znamya the Space Mirror

Znamya was a series of Russian experiments developed in the 1990s to study the possibility of sending back radiation from the Sun to illuminate, for example, cities in the Russian Arctic plunged into darkness for much of the year. Znamya objects are space objects; it would be interesting to focus on environmental legal issues concerning that type of project.

Point Nemo and ownership of objects launched into outer space

Point Nemo is a region in the southern Pacific Ocean where spacecraft that have reached the end of their usefulness are routinely de-orbited and destroyed. Space debris lying in the depths of the Pacific Ocean are, thanks to article VIII of the 1967’s Treaty, still property of the State of Registry.

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