Law of the Sea

The San Remo Manual

The San Remo Manual was prepared at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s by a group of legal and naval experts participating in their personal capacity in a series of Round Tables convened by the International Institute of Humanitarian Law. The purpose of the San Remo Manual is to provide a contemporary restatement of international law applicable to armed conflicts at sea.

The law of salvage

The law of salvage is a principle of Maritime Law whereby any person who helps recover another person’s ship or cargo in peril at sea is entitled to a reward commensurate with the value of the property salved. Maritime law is inherently international, and although salvage laws vary from one country to another, generally there are established conditions to be met to allow a claim of salvage.

Sea Launch and Launching States

Sea Launch is a multinational spacecraft launch service that used a mobile maritime launch platform (an above-ground facility from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched) for equatorial launches of commercial payloads on specialised Zenit-3SL rockets. The private launching company was active from 1995 to 2014.

The Sources of Public International Law

Public International Law, also known as “Law of Nations”, is the name of a body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another. Sources of Public International Law include treaties, international customs, general principles of law as recognised by civilized nations, the decisions of national and lower courts, and scholarly writings.

The 1921 Flag Right Declaration

The Declaration recognising the Right to a Flag of States having no Sea-coast is a 1921 multilateral treaty which legally recognised that a landlocked state (a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas) could be a maritime flag state; that is, that a landlocked state could register ships and sail them on the sea under its own flag.

Flag state and Space Law

With space objects, like vessels, a central register of objects launched into outer space was established and is maintained by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The mandatory system of registering objects launched into outer space (for identification), like that of registering ships, contributes to the development of International Space Law governing the exploration and use of outer space. Let’s have a look at the similarities between the notion of flag state and Space Law.

The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to adjudicate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Convention.

The International Maritime Organization

As a specialised agency of the United Nations, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is the global standard-setting authority for the safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping. Its main role is to create a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that is fair and effective, universally adopted and universally implemented.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

In our researches on Space Law, let’s keep looking at Public International Law, and especially, the Law of the Sea. Let’s have a look at the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, sometimes referred to as the Montego Bay Convention.

The Convention on the High Seas

Space law is usually compared to the Law of the Sea. For this new article in Space Legal Issues, let’s have a look at the Law of the Sea, and especially to the Convention on the High Seas of 1958. The treaty was signed on April 29, 1958 and entered into force on September 30, 1962. Let’s look at some interesting articles of the Convention. We’ll focus on those resembling Outer Space Treaty’s ones.