The Netherlands

Understanding the North Sea Continental Shelf cases (1969)

What is a continental shelf? It can be defined as the area of a land on the edge of a continent that slopes into the ocean. It extends from the coastline of a continent to a point called the shelf break. They are part of the continent and thus, each country that has a coastline has a continental shelf.

Understanding the Wassenaar Arrangement

The main objective of the Wassenaar Arrangement is to coordinate export policies in terms of armaments but also dual-use goods and technologies. It succeeds the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls signed in 1949 (COCOM).

The International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (United States of America).

The Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration or PCA, established by treaty in 1899, is an intergovernmental organisation providing a variety of dispute resolution services to the international community. The PCA is an intergovernmental organisation located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, the first Dutch satellite

The Astronomical Netherlands Satellite or ANS, also known as Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet, the first Dutch artificial satellite, was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope. Launched into a high inclination, Sun-synchronous orbit, it was designed as an astronomical observatory. The spacecraft was attitude-controlled by magnetic coils interacting with the Earth’s magnetic field.