Satellite

The first satellite of Myanmar

Myanmar is preparing to launch its very first Earth observation satellite, as part of a space program bringing together nine Asian countries intended to better arm themselves in the face of natural or climatic disasters.

Legal Aspects of Detecting Parking Spaces in a Parcel using Satellite Images

With the advent of digital image processing techniques, the world has reaped many benefits. This technology was exploited for a particular use case of detecting the number of empty and occupied parking spaces from satellite images of parking lots.

The International Charter On Space And Major Disasters

At the end of the 1990s, the space agencies wanted to make their satellites available for crisis management. The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters is an international agreement between space agencies.

Policy Considerations for Satellite Communications

The demand for space resources can only increase in a set up where space-based technologies and services will be integral to explore, govern, teach, learn, conduct business and defend national territories.

Galileo Constellation: The Independence of Europe

The system has been active since December 15, 2016 when the initial services became operational with the positioning of the first fifteen satellites. Subsequently, the number of satellites was gradually enlarged.

The Use of Nuclear Powered Engines in Outer Space

On August 20, 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump issued a memorandum about research on a potential launch of spacecraft containing nuclear powered engines. Let us have a look.

The Voyager Program: History and Mission

The Voyager program is a real success. The program has made it possible to collect an enormous amount of data and images on our Solar system, which have allowed to gain a more precise knowledge of deep space.

The Molniya Orbit and Satellites

The name of this orbit comes from the Molniya satellites program which was a series of civilian and military communications satellites developed by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Indeed these satellites have used this particular orbit since the mid 1960s, therefore giving its name to it.

Policy Solutions for Cybersecurity in Space

A dedicated space and cybersecurity policy, as opposed to a general cybersecurity bill, will enhance a state’s ability to be more resilient to the particular risks posed to space services and capabilities, including space weather. It also enhances national security interests through space.

The Failure of the Launch of the French Taranis Satellite

On the night of November 16-17, 2020, the French Taranis satellite took off from the Guyana Space Center in Kourou. Unfortunately, this mission ended in failure, since the satellite was lost only eight minutes after its launch.

NEAR Shoemaker: The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Space Probe

During a whole year spent in orbit close to the asteroid (between five and fifty kilometres), NEAR Shoemaker allowed to elaborate databases, provided in innumerable fields, such as the mass of the object, its structure, its gravity, its magnetic field…

ISEE-3: The First Satellite To Reach Lagrange Orbit

ISEE-3 is a satellite from the ISEE program “International Sun-Earth Explorer”. The purpose of this program was to study the relations between the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere. Let us have a look!

NASA and the rules for naming its spacecraft

Mercury, Apollo, Ares, Artemis… are the names of NASA’s most famous spaceships, spacecraft and large-scale missions. Each of them is as firmly associated with the history of space exploration as with its first owners, the gods of Greek and Roman mythology.

Monaco in space

For this new Space Law article on Space Legal Issues, let us have a look at Monaco and its space program. How is the Principality doing in space? Has it signed and ratified the Outer Space Treaty? Does the microstate have any space assets? Let us have a look. Ad Astra!

Satellite operating contract

Space contracts are not completely new contracts: they borrow pre-existing molds. However, contractual practice is innovating in order to respond to new needs generated by new techniques: innovation is reflected here in the very fine adaptation to the subject of the contract. Let’s have a look at the satellite operating contract.

The International Frequency Registration Board

The International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB) was created in order to maintain a register of all radio frequencies used for all purposes throughout the world, and to ensure that no new frequency was taken into use by any country if the use of this frequency caused interferences to radio stations already in operation, in accordance with the provisions of the Radio Regulations.

The first come, first served technique in space law

The first come, first served technique, used for a long time in satellite telecommunications law in order to allocate the natural resources of space (geostationary orbit, frequency spectrum) between States, is in the foreground currently in the context of the allocation of domain names allowing access to the Internet.

Satellite launch contract

How does the satellite launch contract works? How is it created? In this area, we can really speak of the launch market. The last few years have in fact seen the European company Arianespace, long in a situation of quasi-monopoly in matters of commercial launches, widely challenged by companies not only American and Russian, but also Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Brazilian.

Understanding the Wassenaar Arrangement

The main objective of the Wassenaar Arrangement is to coordinate export policies in terms of armaments but also dual-use goods and technologies. It succeeds the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls signed in 1949 (COCOM).

Satellite construction contract

Space contracts are not completely new contracts: they borrow pre-existing molds. However, contractual practice is innovating in order to respond to new needs generated by new techniques: innovation is reflected here in the very fine adaptation to the subject of the contract.