Is the orbital environment a natural resource?

“Our orbital environment is a natural resource. Just as we need to protect our rivers, forests and oceans on Earth, we believe our orbits need to be monitored and maintained in order to be sustainable”. When a valuable, naturally-occurring resource, is difficult to substitute, its preservation is of prime importance.

Harmful contamination, harmful interference and space debris

For this new Space Law article on Space Legal Issues, let us study the concept of harmful contamination, harmful interference and that of space debris, as it is presented in Article IX of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, Magna Carta of space law.

The space program of New Zealand

New Zealand’s role in outer space is gaining momentum, bringing increased opportunities. Rocket Lab, a United States of America corporation with a subsidiary in New Zealand, is the main commercial player in New Zealand’s emerging space industry. New Zealand is setting itself up to become an international launch site for sending objects into outer space.

The need to protect satellites

Communications, localisation, observation… The dependence on satellite systems has increased for the realisation of some of these functions, whether they are used for civil applications, as well as in the field of defense. It is therefore essential to be able to ensure the continuity of the services provided by these satellite systems, while ensuring their proper functioning.

French ONERA and outer space

The Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) is the French national aerospace research centre. It is a public establishment, with industrial and commercial operations, and carries out application-oriented research to support enhanced innovation and competitiveness in the aerospace and defense sectors.

The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992

After nearly a decade of attempting to guide the complex process of land remote sensing in the U.S., the 1984 Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act was repealed; in its place, U.S. Congress passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992.

The Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984

The Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984 is a U.S. statute establishing a system to further the utilisation of satellite imagery data obtained from Earth observation satellites. The Act was: a) to guide the federal government in achieving proper involvement of the private sector, and b) to maintain the U.S.A.’s worldwide leadership in civil remote sensing.

France in space: independence and cooperation

At the head of the third world space budget, France equipped itself in September with a military space command. Apart from manned flight, the hexagon is present in all areas: commercial launches, science, observation, telecommunications and defense.

Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting

In order to gain some understanding of the impact of communications institutions on the formation of international law, let’s have a look for this new Space Law article at the Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting.

The solar storm of 1859

Also known as the Carrington Event, the solar storm of 1859 was a powerful geomagnetic storm. An incredible storm of charged particles sent by the Sun slammed into Earth’s atmosphere, overpowered it, and caused havoc on the ground. Telegraph wires, the high-tech stuff of the time, suddenly shorted out in the United States of America and Europe, igniting widespread fires. Colourful aurora, normally visible only in Polar Regions, were seen as far south as Cuba and Hawaii.

Pleumeur-Bodou and the French CNET

July 11, 1962. For the first time in the history of telecommunications, television images are broadcasted live from the United States of America to Europe, thanks to the Telstar satellite. Mondovision was born thanks to Pleumeur-Bodou and the French CNET.

The Television Without Frontiers Directive

The Television Without Frontiers Directive is the cornerstone of the European Union’s audiovisual policy. It rests on two basic principles: the free movement of European television programs within the internal market, and the requirement for TV channels to reserve, whenever possible, more than half of their transmission time for European works.

The European Convention on Transfrontier Television

The European Convention on Transfrontier Television is the first international treaty creating a legal framework for the free circulation of transfrontier television programs in Europe, through minimum common rules, in fields such as programming, advertising, sponsorship and the protection of certain individual rights.

Sectoral space regulations

Since the first commercial telecommunications satellites were put into orbit in 1965, there has been a real economic explosion in this sector, with the proliferation of networks, whether at national, regional or global level. International (Intelsat, Inmarsat, Interspoutnik) or regional (Eutelsat, Arabsat) satellite communications organisations have been established to manage these commercial systems.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Everything in the universe emits some kind of “light” (electromagnetic radiation or “EM” radiation, for short) but often it is not the kind of light that we are used to. This visible part consists of the colours that we see in a rainbow. Each of these colours actually corresponds to a different energy and a different wavelength.

An introduction to Remote Sensing

Remote sensing is defined by the English Oxford Dictionary as “the scanning of the Earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it”. Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation, especially the Earth.

The Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent agency of the United States government, regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all fifty states of the United States of America.

The Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a governmental body of the United States of America with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters.

An introduction to Space Applications

This article aims at comprehending the benefits of space applications from a user perspective, focusing on the creation of value in the space information value chain and examine space applications with a primary focus on Earth‐orbiting satellite systems and other complementary technologies.

An introduction to Orbital Mechanics

Orbital mechanics is the application of the laws of physics to describing the motion of spacecraft. It is one of the fundamental topics in astronautics and is essential to the design, implementation, and operation of a space mission. As well as defining the sorts of orbits that are possible, orbital mechanics is needed to determine spacecraft trajectories.